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Access To School and Medical Records: LOUISIANA Through NORTH DAKOTA

Back to Index to School and Medical Records State Statutes


Louisiana

Search all codified Louisiana laws by following this link: http://www.legis.state.la.us/



Louisiana Revised Statutes 9:351.
Access to records of child

Not withstanding any provision of law to the contrary, access to records and information pertaining to a minor child, including but not limited to medical, dental, and school records, shall not be denied to a parent solely because he is not the child's custodial or domiciliary parent.

Maine

Title 19-A, Part 3, Chapter 55, § 1653. Parental rights and responsibilities

D. The order of the court awarding parental rights and responsibilities must include the following:

(4) A statement that each parent must have access to records and information pertaining to a minor child, including, but not limited to, medical, dental and school records and other information on school activities, whether or not the child resides with the parent, unless that access is found not to be in the best interest of the child or that access is found to be sought for the purpose of causing detriment to the other parent. If that access is not ordered, the court shall state in the order its reasons for denying that access;


Maryland

§ 9-104. Access to medical, dental, and educational records by noncustodial parent.

Unless otherwise ordered by a court, access to medical, dental, and educational records concerning the child may not be denied to a parent because the parent does not have physical custody of the child.

Department of Human Resources §6

(b)...Reports or records concerning child abuse or neglect:

(2) May be disclosed on request:
(vi) To a parent or other person who has permanent or temporary care and custody of a child, if provisions are made for the protection of the identity of the reporter or any other person whose life or safety is likely to be endangered by disclosing the information;


Massachusetts
MA has the most backwards statute in the country on access to school records for noncustodial parents. This law, passed a couple years ago, requires that you prove that you are not prohibited from accessing these records, and it gives the CP notice of your request and 21 days to get a restraining order prohibiting your access. SC has a similar policy, but that policy is not law.

This Act conflicts with MGL Chapter 208: Section 31. That section, listed in part below, does grant you much better access to any records other than school records.

Chapter 285 of the Acts of 1998
AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF INFORMATION TO CERTAIN PARENTS OF CHILDREN ENROLLED IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:
Chapter 71 of the General Laws is hereby amended by inserting after section 34G the following section:-
Section 34H.(a)Each public elementary and secondary school shall provide the following information in a timely and appropriate manner to the parent of a child enrolled in the school if the parent is eligible for information pursuant to this section and requests the information in the manner set forth in this section: report cards and progress reports; the results of intelligence and achievement tests; notification of a referral for a special needs assessment; notification of enrollment in a transitional bilingual program; notification of absences; notification of illnesses; notification of any detentions; suspensions or expulsion; and notification of permanent withdrawal from school. Each school shall also make reasonable efforts to ensure that other written information that is provided to the custodial parent but not specified in the preceding sentence be provided to the requesting parent if that parent is eligible for information pursuant to this section and requests the information in the manner set forth herein. All address and telephone number information shall be removed from information provided pursuant to this section. Receipt of this information shall not mandate participation in any proceeding to which notification pertains nor shall it authorize participation in proceedings and decisions regarding the child's welfare which are not granted through the award of custody. For purposes of this section, any parent who does not have physical custody of a child shall be eligible for the receipt of information pursuant to the procedures of this section unless said parent has been denied legal custody of the child based on a threat to the safety of the child or to the custodial parent, or who has been denied visitation, or who has been ordered to supervised visitation, or whose access to their child or to the custodial parent has been restricted by a temporary or permanent protective order unless said protective order, or any subsequent order which modifies said protective order, specifically allows access to the information described in this section.
(b)A parent eligible for information pursuant to this section who wishes to have this information shall submit a written request to the school principal annually. The initial request shall include: a certified copy of the probate court's order or judgment relative to the custody of the child indicating that the requesting parent has not sought and been denied shared legal custody as defined in section 31 of chapter 208 based on a threat to the safety of the child or the custodial parent and is entitled to unsupervised visitation with his child, or a certified copy of an order by a probate and family court judge specifically ordering that this information be made available to the requesting parent which certifies on its face that it is being made after a review of the records, if any, of the judgment of custody and the criminal history of the petitioner, that provision of the requested information has not been determined to pose a safety risk for the custodial parent or to any child in the custodial parent's custody and that it is in the best interest of the child that such information be provided to the petitioner; and an affidavit from the requesting parent certifying that the judgment or order remains in effect and that no temporary or permanent protective order restricting access to the custodial parent or to any child in the custodial parent's custody is in effect.
(c)Upon receipt of a request for information pursuant to this section the school shall immediately notify the custodial parent of the receipt of the request. Notification must be made by registered mail and by first class mail in both the primary language of the custodial parent and in English. The school may seek reimbursement for the cost of postage from the requesting parent. The notification shall also inform the custodial parent that information requested pursuant to this section shall be provided to the requesting parent after 21 days unless the custodial parent provides to the principal of the school documentation of any court order which prohibits contact with the child, or prohibits the distribution of the information referred to in this section or which is a temporary or permanent order issued to provide protection to the custodial parent or any child in the custodial parent's custody from abuse by the requesting parent unless said protective order or any subsequent order which modifies said protective order, specifically allows access to the information described in this section.
(d)In each subsequent year, the parent eligible for information pursuant to this section shall indicate in the annual request that he continues to be entitled to unsupervised visitation with his child and to be eligible for the receipt of the information pursuant to this section. Upon receipt of a request for information pursuant to this section the school shall immediately notify the custodial parent of the receipt of the request. Notification shall be made by registered mail and by first class mail in both the primary language of the custodial parent and in English. The school may seek reimbursement for the cost of postage from the requesting parent. The notification shall also inform the custodial parent that information requested pursuant to this section shall be provided to the requesting parent after 21 days unless the custodial parent provides to the principal of the school documentation of any court order which prohibits contact with the child, or prohibits the distribution of the information referred to in this section or which is a temporary or permanent order issued to provide protection to the custodial parent or any child in the custodial parent's custody from abuse by the requesting parent.
(e)At any time the principal of a school is presented with an order of a probate and family court judge which prohibits the distribution of information pursuant to this section the school shall immediately cease to provide said information and shall notify the requesting parent that the distribution of information shall cease.
(f)The principal of each public elementary and secondary school shall designate a staff member whose duties shall include the proper implementation of this section.
(g)Requests for information made pursuant to this section which are made while a permanent protective order restricting access to the custodial parent or to any child in the custodial parent's custody is in effect shall constitute a violation of said protective order and be subject to the applicable penalties.
(h)The department of education shall promulgate regulations to implement the provisions of this section. Said regulations shall include provisions which assure that the information referred to in this section is properly marked to indicate that said information may not be used to support admission of the child to another school.
Approved August 10, 1998.

GENERAL LAWS OF MASSACHUSETTS Chapter 208: Section 31. Custody of children; shared custody plans states in part:

The entry of an order or judgment relative to the custody of minor children shall not negate or impede the ability of the non-custodial parent to have access to the academic, medical, hospital or other health records of the child, as he would have had if the custody order or judgment had not been entered; provided, however, that if a court has issued an order to vacate against the non-custodial parent or an order prohibiting the non-custodial parent from imposing any restraint upon the personal liberty of the other parent or if nondisclosure of the present or prior address of the child or a party is necessary to ensure the health, safety or welfare of such child or party, the court may order that any part of such record pertaining to such address shall not be disclosed to such non-custodial parent.

Michigan

600.2165 Disclosure of students' records or communications by school teacher or employee. [M.S.A. 27a.2165 ]
Sec. 2165. No teacher, guidance officer, school executive or other professional person engaged in character building in the public schools or in any other educational institution, including any clerical worker of such schools and institutions, who maintains records of students' behavior or who has records in his custody, or who receives in confidence communications from students or other juveniles, shall be allowed in any proceedings, civil or criminal, in any court of this state, to disclose any information obtained by him from the records or such communications; nor to produce records or transcript thereof, except that testimony may be given, with the consent of the person so confiding or to whom the records relate, if the person is 18 years of age or over, or, if the person is a minor, with the consent of his or her parent or legal guardian.

This FERPA Q & A document from the MI State Department of Education outlines their policy and/or interpretation of the federal law. On page 6 it says:

99.4 What are the rights of parents?
An educational agency or institution shall give full rights under the act to either parent, unless the agency or institution has been provided with evidence that there is a court order, state statute, or other legally binding document relating to such matters as divorce, separation, or custody that specifically revokes these rights.
(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1232g)

PUBLIC HEALTH CODE (EXCERPT) Act 368 of 1978

333.20201 Policy describing rights and responsibilities of patients or residents

(b) An individual who is or has been a patient or resident is entitled to inspect, or receive for a reasonable fee, a copy of his or her medical record upon request. A third party shall not be given a copy of the patient's or resident's medical record without prior authorization of the patient.

Access To Medical Records - Revised

MEDICAL RECORDS ACCESS ACT (EXCERPT)
Act 47 of 2004


333.26265 Request by authorized individual to examine or obtain medical record; response by health care provider or facility; extension of response time.

Sec. 5.

(1) Except as otherwise provided by law or regulation, a patient or his or her authorized representative has the right to examine or obtain the patient's medical record.


(2) An individual authorized under subsection (1) who wishes to examine or obtain a copy of the patient's medical record shall submit a written request that is signed and dated by that individual not more than 60 days before being submitted to the health care provider or health facility that maintains the medical record that is the subject of the request. Upon receipt of a request under this subsection, a health care provider or health facility shall, as promptly as required under the circumstances, but not later than 30 days after receipt of the request or if the medical record is not maintained or accessible on-site not later than 60 days after receipt of the request, do 1 or more of the following:


  1. Make the medical record available for inspection or copying, or both, at the health care provider's or health facility's business location during regular business hours or provide a copy of all or part of the medical record, as requested by the patient or his or her authorized representative.

  2. If the health care provider or health facility has contracted with another person or medical records company to maintain the health care provider's or health facility's medical records, the health care provider or health facility shall transmit a request made under this subsection to the person or medical records company maintaining the medical records. The health care provider or health facility shall retrieve the medical record from the person or medical records company maintaining the medical records and comply with subdivision (a) or shall require the person or medical records company that maintains that medical record to comply with subdivision (a).

  3. Inform the patient or his or her authorized representative if the medical record does not exist or cannot be found.

  4. If the health care provider or health facility to which the request is directed does not maintain the medical record requested and does not have a contract with another person or medical records company as described in subdivision (b), so inform the patient or his or her authorized representative and provide the name and address, if known, of the health care provider or health facility that maintains the medical records.

  5. If the health care provider or health facility determines that disclosure of the requested medical record is likely to have an adverse effect on the patient, the health care provider or health facility shall provide a clear statement supporting that determination and provide the medical record to another health care provider, health facility, or legal counsel designated by the patient or his or her authorized representative.

  6. If the health care provider or health facility receives a request for a medical record that was obtained from someone other than a health care provider or health facility under a confidentiality agreement, the health care provider or health facility may deny access to that medical record if access to that medical record would be reasonably likely to reveal the source of the information. If the health care provider or health facility denies access under this subdivision, it shall provide the patient or his or her authorized representative with a written denial.

  7. The health care provider, health facility, or medical records company shall take reasonable steps to verify the identity of the person making the request to examine or obtain a copy of the patient's medical record.

  8. If the health care provider, health facility, or medical records company is unable to take action as required under subsection (2) and the health care provider, health facility, or medical records company provides the patient with a written statement indicating the reasons for its delay within the required time period, the health care provider, health facility, or medical records company may extend the response time for no more than 30 days. A health care provider, health facility, or medical records company may only extend the response time once per request under this subsection.



Minnesota

Chapter Title: SCHOOL DISTRICT
POWERS AND DUTIES
Section: 123B.02

Subd. 12. Noncustodial parent access to records.

Upon request, a noncustodial parent has the right of access to, and to receive copies of, school records and information, to attend conferences, and to be informed about the child's welfare, educational progress, and status, as authorized under section 518.17, subdivision 3. The school is not required to hold a separate conference for each parent.

MN Rules on access to Medical Records:

144.335 Access to health records.

Subdivision 1. Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the following terms have the meanings given them:

(a) "Patient" means a
natural person who has received health care services from a provider for treatment or examination of a medical, psychiatric, or mental condition.... Except for minors who have received health care services pursuant to sections 144.341 to 144.347, in the case of a minor, patient includes a parent or guardian, or a person acting as a parent or guardian in the absence of a parent or guardian. [Note that is does not specify custodial parent. It also includes a "person acting as a parent," such as a step-parent, though we would back that up with a power of attorney. TGB]

Subd. 2. Patient access. (a)
Upon request, a provider shall supply to a patient complete and current information possessed by that provider concerning any diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the patient in terms and language the patient can reasonably be expected to understand.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (e), upon a patient's written request, a provider, at a reasonable cost to the patient, shall promptly furnish to the patient (1) copies of the patient's health record, including but not limited to laboratory reports, x-rays, prescriptions, and other technical information used in assessing the patient's health condition, or (2) the pertinent portion of the record relating to a condition specified by the patient. With the consent of the patient, the provider may instead furnish only a summary of the record. The provider may exclude from the health record written speculations about the patient's health condition, except that all information necessary for the patient's informed consent must be provided.

There is more, go to the link to read the whole thing. Also, the following applies in cases of an emancipated child or a child seeking abortion or pregnancy assistance, plus a few other cases where the parents do not normally need to be notified:

144.346 Information to parents.

The professional may inform the parent or legal guardian of the minor patient of any treatment given or needed where, in the judgment of the professional, failure to inform the parent or guardian would seriously jeopardize the health of the minor patient.


Mississippi

§ 93-5-26. Noncustodial parent's right of access to records and information pertaining to minor children.
Notwithstanding any other provisions of law except those provisions protecting the confidentiality of adoption records and except for cases in which parental rights have been legally terminated access to records and information pertaining to a minor child including but not limited to medical dental and school records shall not be denied to a parent because the parent is not the child's custodial parent if such parent's parental rights have not been terminated by adoption or by a termination of parental rights proceeding.


§ 93-5-24. Types of custody awarded by court; joint custody; access to information pertaining to child by noncustodial parent.

(e) For the purposes of this section joint legal custody means that the parents or parties share the decision-making rights the responsibilities and the authority relating to the health education and welfare of a child. An award of joint legal custody obligates the parties to exchange information concerning the health education and welfare of the minor child and to confer with one another in the exercise of decision-making rights responsibilities and authority.
An award of joint physical and legal custody obligates the parties to exchange information concerning the health education and welfare of the minor child and unless allocated apportioned or decreed the parents or parties shall confer with one another in the exercise of decision-making rights responsibilities and authority. (Emphasis added).
(7) Notwithstanding any other provision of law access to records and information pertaining to a minor child including but not limited to medical dental and school records shall not be denied to a parent because the parent is not the child's custodial parent.

§ 37-15-3. Storage of cumulative folders; access to records; disposition of records upon transfer of student between schools; destruction of records.
.... Transcripts of courses and grades may be furnished when requested by the parent or guardian or eligible pupil as prescribed in the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 as amended 20 USC Section 1232. Such records shall be kept for each pupil throughout his entire public school enrollment period....

§ 43-21-261. Disclosure of (Juvenile Court) records.
(3) Upon request the parent guardian or custodian of the child who is the subject of a youth court cause or any attorney for such parent guardian or custodian shall have the right to inspect any record report or investigation which is to be considered by the youth court at a hearing except that the identity of the reporter shall not be released nor the name of any other person where the person or agency making the information available finds that disclosure of the information would be likely to endanger the life or safety of such person.

Missouri

Missouri Revised Statutes, Chapter 452, Dissolution of Marriage, Divorce, Alimony and Separate Maintenance
Section 452.375

7. Upon a finding by the court that either parent has refused to exchange information with the other parent, which shall include but not be limited to information concerning the health, education and welfare of the child, the court shall order the parent to comply immediately and to pay the prevailing party a sum equal to the prevailing party's cost associated with obtaining the requested information, which shall include but not be limited to reasonable attorney's fees and court costs.
10. Unless a parent has been denied custody rights pursuant to this section or visitation rights under section 452.400, both parents shall have access to records and information pertaining to a minor child, including, but not limited to, medical, dental, and school records. If the parent without custody has been granted restricted or supervised visitation because the court has found that the parent with custody or the child has been the victim of domestic violence, as defined in section 455.200, RSMo, by the parent without custody, the court may order that the reports and records made available pursuant to this subsection not include the address of the parent with custody or the child. Unless a parent has been denied custody rights pursuant to this section or visitation rights under section 452.400, any judgment of dissolution or other applicable court order shall specifically allow both parents access to such records and reports.
11. Except as otherwise precluded by state or federal law, if any individual, professional, public or private institution or organization denies access or fails to provide or disclose any and all records and information, including, but not limited to, past and present dental, medical and school records pertaining to a minor child, to either parent upon the written request of such parent, the court shall, upon its finding that the individual, professional, public or private institution or organization denied such request without good cause, order that party to comply immediately with such request and to pay to the prevailing party all costs incurred, including, but not limited to, attorney's fees and court costs associated with obtaining the requested information.

Montana

40-4-225. Access to records by parent. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, access to records and information pertaining to a minor child, including but not limited to medical, dental, law enforcement, and school records, may not be denied to a parent who is a party to a parenting plan.

Nebraska

NE Statutes

(4) Regardless of the custody determination of the court, (a) each parent shall continue to have full and equal access to the education and medical records of his or her child unless the court orders to the contrary and (b) either parent may make emergency decisions affecting the health or safety of his or her child while the child is in the physical custody of such parent pursuant to a visitation order entered by the court.

Nevada

NRS 125.520 Plan for carrying out court's order; access to child's records.
2. Access to records and other information pertaining to a minor child, for example, medical, dental and school records, must not be denied to a parent for the reason that the parent is not the child's custodial parent.

New Hampsire

§ 458:17 Support and Custody of Children.
I could find no statutes specifically granting non-custodial parents access to records, but this does discuss joint parenting rights.

§ 169-B:35 Juvenile Case and Court Records.
II. Court records of proceedings under this chapter, except for those court records under RSA 169-B:36, II, shall be kept in books and files separate from all other court records. Such records shall be withheld from public inspection but shall be open to inspection by officers of the institution where the minor is committed, juvenile services officers, a parent, a guardian, a custodian, the minor's attorney, the relevant county, and others entrusted with the corrective treatment of the minor.

§ 170-G:8-a (Provides parental access to records of Services for Children, Youth and Families).

New Jersey

9:2-4.2


Parental access to children's records.

1. a.Every parent, except as prohibited by federal and State law, shall have access to records and information pertaining to his or her unemancipated child, including, but not limited to, medical, dental, insurance, child care and educational records, whether or not the child resides with the parent, unless that access is found by the court to be not in the best interest of the child or the access is found by the court to be sought for the purpose of causing detriment to the other parent.

b.The place of residence of either parent shall not appear on any records or information released pursuant to the provisions of this section.

c.A child's parent, guardian or legal custodian may petition the court to have a parent's access to the records limited. If the court, after a hearing, finds that the parent's access to the record is not in the best interest of the child or that the access sought is for the purpose of causing detriment to the other parent, the court may order that access to the records be limited.

NJ Adopted Code 6:3-6.1 through 6.8

6:3-6.1 Definitions

The following words and terms, when used in this subchapter, shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

"Access" means the right to view, to make notes, and/or to have a reproduction of the pupil record made.

"Adult pupil" means a person who is at least 18 years of age, or is attending an institution of postsecondary education, or is an emancipated minor.

"Parent" means the natural parent(s) or legal guardian(s), foster parent(s) or parent surrogate(s) of a pupil. Where parents are separated or divorced, "parent" means the person or agency who has legal custody of the pupil, as well as the natural or adoptive parents of the pupil, provided such parental rights have not been terminated by a court of appropriate jurisdiction.

"Parent surrogate(s)" means an individual or individuals approved by the district board of education in accordance with N.J.A.C. [6:28-2.2] 6A:14-2.2 to act on behalf of a pupil whose parents are not available to assure the pupils educational rights.

"Pupil" means a person who is or was enrolled in a public school.

"Pupil record" means information related to an individual pupil gathered within or outside the school system and maintained within the school system, regardless of the physical form in which it is maintained. Essential in this definition is the idea that any information which is maintained for the purpose of second party review is considered a pupil record. Therefore, information recorded by any certified school personnel solely as a memory aid, not for the use of a second party, is excluded from this definition.

6:3-6.2 General considerations

(a) This subchapter applies to all district boards of education or private agencies which provide educational services by means of public funds. District boards of education shall include, but not be limited to, all county boards of special services school districts, county vocational boards of education, jointure commissions, educational services commissions, education programs operated by county residential facilities and State-operated special education programs.

(b) Each district board of education shall have the responsibility to compile and maintain pupil records and to regulate access, disclosure or communication of information from educational records in a manner that assures the security of such records in accordance with this subchapter.

(c) Pupil records shall contain only such information as is relevant to the education of the pupil and is objectively based on the personal observations or knowledge of the certified school personnel who originate(s) the record.

(d) The district board of education shall notify parents and adult pupils annually in writing of their rights in regard to pupil records and pupil participation in educational, occupational and military recruitment programs. Copies of the applicable State and Federal laws and local policies shall be made available upon request. District boards of education shall make every effort to notify parents and adult pupils in their dominant language.

(e) A non-adult pupil may assert rights of access only through his or her parents. However, nothing in these rules shall be construed to prohibit certified school personnel, in their discretion, from disclosing pupil records to non-adult pupils or to appropriate persons in connection with an emergency, if such knowledge is necessary to protect the health or safety of the pupil or other persons.

(f) The parent or adult pupil shall either have access to or be specifically informed about only that portion of another pupils record that contains information about his or her own child or him or herself.

(g) Each district board of education shall establish written policies and procedures for pupil records which:


  1. Guarantee access to persons authorized under this subchapter within 10 days of the request, but prior to any review or hearing conducted in accordance with the State Board of Education rules;
  2. Assure security of the records;
  3. Enumerate and describe the pupil records collected and maintained by the district board of education;
  4. Provide for the inclusion of educationally relevant information in the pupil record by the parent or adult pupil;
  5. Allow for the designation, release and public notice of directory information as defined herein;
  6. Provide the parent or adult pupil a 10-day period to submit a written statement to the chief school administrator prohibiting the institution from including any or all types of information about the student in any student information directory before allowing access to such directory and school facilities to educational, occupational and military recruiters pursuant to N.J.S.A. 18A:36-19.1;
  7. Assure limited access to pupil records by secretarial and clerical personnel pursuant to N.J.A.C. 6:3-6.5; and
  8. Provide for the access and security of pupil records maintained in a computerized system.


(h) All anecdotal information and assessment reports collected on a pupil shall be dated and signed by the individual who originated the data.

(i) The chief school administrator or his or her designee shall require all permitted pupil records of currently enrolled pupils to be reviewed annually by certified school personnel to determine the education relevance of the material contained therein. The reviewer shall cause data no longer descriptive of the pupil or educational situation to be deleted from the records except that prior notice must be given for classified students in accordance with N.J.A.C. [6:28] 6A:14. Such information shall be destroyed and not be recorded elsewhere. No record of any such deletion shall be made.

(j) No liability shall be attached to any member, officer or employee of any district board of education permitting access or furnishing pupil records in accordance with these rules.

New Mexico

40-4-9.1. Joint custody; standards for determination; parenting plan.

H. Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, access to records and information pertaining to a minor child, including medical, dental and school records, shall not be denied to a parent because that parent is not the child's physical custodial parent or because that parent is not a joint custodial parent.

New York

NY State DOE questions and answers on Student Records.

Public Health Law, Article 1, Title 2, Section 18. controls access to medical records. You should have access to these records. The doctor can refuse if he feels that revealing the information in the records will be detrimental to the patient or others, but there is an appeal process:

S 18. Access to patient information.
1.Definitions. For the purpose of this section:

(a)"Committee" means a medical access review committee appointed pursuant to subdivision four of this section.
(b)"Health care provider" or "provider" means a "health care facility" or a "health care practitioner" as defined by this subdivision.
(c)"Health care facility" or "facility" means a hospital as defined in article twenty-eight of this chapter, a home care services agency as defined in article thirty-six of this chapter, a hospice as defined in article forty of this chapter, a health maintenance organization as defined in article forty-four of this chapter, and a shared health facility as defined in article forty-seven of this chapter.
(d)"Health care practitioner" or "practitioner" means a person licensed under article one hundred thirty-one, one hundred thirty-one-B, one hundred thirty-two, one hundred thirty-three, one hundred thirty-six, one hundred thirty-nine, one hundred forty-one, one hundred forty-three, one hundred forty-four, one hundred fifty-three, one hundred fifty-four, one hundred fifty-six or one hundred fifty-nine of the education law or a person certified under section twenty-five hundred sixty of this chapter.
(e)"Patient information" or "information" means any information concerning or relating to the examination, health assessment including, but not limited to, a health assessment for insurance and employment purposes or treatment of an identifiable subject maintained or possessed by a health care facility or health care practitioner who has provided or is providing services for assessment of a health condition including, but not limited to, a health assessment for insurance and employment purposes or has treated or is treating such subject, except (i)information and clinical records subject to the provisions of section 23.05 or 33.13 of the mental hygiene law,
(ii)personal notes and observations of a health care practitioner, provided that such personal notes and observations are maintained by the practitioner and not disclosed by the practitioner to any other person after January first, nineteen hundred eighty-seven,
(iii)information maintained by a practitioner, concerning or relating to the prior examination or treatment of a subject received from another practitioner, provided however, that such information may be requested by the subject directly from such other practitioner in accordance with the provisions of this section, and
(iv)data disclosed to a practitioner in confidence by other persons on the basis of an express condition that such data would never be disclosed to the subject or other persons, provided that such data has never been disclosed to any other person. If at any time such personal notes and observations or such data is disclosed, it shall be considered patient information for purposes of this section. For purposes of this subdivision, "disclosure to any other person" shall not include disclosures made to practitioners as part of a consultation or referral during the treatment of the subject, to persons reviewing information or records in the ordinary course of ensuring that a provider is in compliance with applicable quality of care, licensure or accreditation standards, to an employee or official of a federal, state or local agency for the sole purpose of conducting an audit in the course of his or her official duties, to the statewide planning and research cooperative system, to other persons pursuant to a court order, to governmental agencies, insurance companies licensed pursuant to the insurance law and other third parties requiring information necessary for payments to be made to or on behalf of patients, to qualified researchers, to the state board for professional medical conduct when such board requests such information in the exercise of its statutory function, to an insurance carrier insuring, or an attorney consulted by, a health care provider, or to a health maintenance organization certified pursuant to article forty-four of this chapter or licensed pursuant to the insurance law, or to the committee or a court pursuant to the provisions of this section.
For purposes of this subdivision treatment of a subject shall not include diagnostic services, except mammography, performed by a practitioner at the request of another health care practitioner provided, however, that such information, and mammograms, may be requested by the subject directly from the practitioner at whose request such diagnostic services were performed, in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(f)"Personal notes and observations" means a practitioner`s speculations, impressions (other than tentative or actual diagnosis) and reminders, provided such data is maintained by a practitioner.
(g)"Qualified person" means any properly identified subject, or a guardian appointed pursuant to article eighty-one of the mental hygiene law, or a parent of an infant, or a guardian of an infant appointed pursuant to article seventeen of the surrogate`s court procedure act or other legally appointed guardian of an infant who may be entitled to request access to a clinical record pursuant to paragraph (c) of subdivision two of this section, or an attorney representing or acting on behalf of the subject or the subject`s estate.
(h)"Subject" means an individual concerning whom patient information is maintained or possessed by a health care provider.
(i)"Treating practitioner" means the health care practitioner who has primary responsibility for the care of the subject within the health care facility or if such practitioner is unavailable, a practitioner designated by such facility.

2.Access by qualified persons.

(a)Subject to the provisions of subdivision three of this section, upon the written request of any subject, a health care provider shall provide an opportunity, within ten days, for such subject to inspect any patient information concerning or relating to the examination or treatment of such subject in the possession of such health care provider.
(b)Subject to the provisions of subdivision three of this section, upon the written request of the committee for an incompetent appointed pursuant to article seventy-eight of the mental hygiene law, a health care provider shall provide an opportunity, within ten days, for the inspection by such committee of any patient information concerning the incompetent subject in the possession of such health care provider.
(c)Subject to the provisions of subdivision three of this section and except as otherwise provided by law, upon the written request of a parent or guardian of an infant appointed pursuant to article seventeen of the surrogate`s court procedure act, or any other legally appointed guardian, a health care provider shall provide an opportunity, within ten days, for such parent or guardian to inspect any patient information maintained or possessed by such provider concerning care and treatment of the infant for which the consent of such parent or guardian was obtained or where care was provided without consent in an emergency which was the result of accidental injury or the unexpected onset of serious illness; provided, however, that such parent or guardian shall not be entitled to inspect or make copies of any patient information concerning the care and treatment of an infant where the health care provider determines that access to the information requested by such parent or guardian would have a detrimental effect on the provider`s professional relationship with the infant, or on the care and treatment of the infant, or on the infant`s relationship with his or her parents or guardian.
(d)Subject to the provisions of subdivision three of this section, upon the written request of any qualified person, a health care provider shall furnish to such person, within a reasonable time, a copy of any patient information requested, and original mammograms requested, which the person is authorized to inspect pursuant to this subdivision.
(e)The provider may impose a reasonable charge for all inspections and copies, not exceeding the costs incurred by such provider, provided, however, that a provider may not impose a charge for copying an original mammogram when the original has been furnished to any qualified person and provided, further, that any charge for furnishing an original mammogram pursuant to this section shall not exceed the documented costs associated therewith. However, the reasonable charge for paper copies shall not exceed seventy-five cents per page. A qualified person shall not be denied access to patient information solely because of inability to pay.
(f)A provider may place reasonable limitations on the time, place, and frequency of any inspections of patient information.
(g)In the event that a practitioner does not have space available to permit the inspection of patient information, the practitioner may, in the alternative, furnish a qualified person a copy of such information within ten days.
(h)A provider may request the opportunity to review the patient information with the qualified person requesting such information, but such review shall not be a prerequisite for furnishing the information.
(i)A provider may make available for inspection either the original or a copy of patient information.

3.Limitations on access.

(a)Upon receipt of a written request by a qualified person to inspect or copy patient information, a practitioner may review the information requested. Unless the practitioner determines pursuant to paragraph (d) of this subdivision that
(i)the requested review of the information can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the subject or others which would outweigh the qualified person`s right to access to the information, or
(ii)the material requested is personal notes and observations, or the information requested would have a detrimental effect as defined in subdivision two of this section, review of such patient information shall be permitted or copies provided.
(b)Upon receipt of a written request by a qualified person to inspect patient information maintained by a facility, the facility shall inform the treating practitioner of the request. The treating practitioner may review the information requested. Unless the treating practitioner determines, pursuant to paragraph (d) of this subdivision that the requested review of the information can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the subject or others which would outweigh the qualified person`s right of access to the information or would have a detrimental effect as defined in subdivision two of this section, review of such patient information shall be permitted or copies provided.
(c)A subject over the age of twelve years may be notified of any request by a qualified person to review his/her patient information, and, if the subject objects to disclosure, the provider may deny the request. In the case of a facility, the treating practitioner shall be consulted.
(d)The provider may deny access to all or a part of the information and may grant access to a prepared summary of the information if, after consideration of all the attendant facts and circumstances, the provider determines that
(i)the request to review all or a part of the patient information can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the subject or others which would outweigh the qualified person`s right of access to the information, or would have a detrimental effect as defined in subdivision two of this section, or (ii)the material requested is personal notes and observations. In conducting such review, the provider may consider, among other things, the following factors:
(i)the need for, and the fact of, continuing care and treatment;
(ii)the extent to which the knowledge of the information may be harmful to the health or safety of the subject or others;
(iii)the extent to which the information contains sensitive material disclosed in confidence to the practitioner or treating practitioner by family members, friends and other persons;
(iv)the extent to which the information contains sensitive materials disclosed to the practitioner or the treating practitioner by the subject which would be injurious to the subject`s relationships with other persons, except when the subject is requesting information concerning himself or herself; and
(v)in the case of a minor making a request for access pursuant to subdivision two of this section, the age of the subject.
(e)In the event of a denial of access, the qualified person shall be informed by the provider of such denial, and whether the denial is based on the reasonable expectation that release of the information can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the subject or others which outweighs the qualified person`s right of access to the information or on the reasonable expectation that release of the information would have a detrimental effect as defined in subdivision two of this section, or on the basis that the materials sought to be reviewed constitute personal notes and observations, and of the qualified person`s right to obtain, without cost, a review of the denial by the appropriate medical record access review committee. If the qualified person requests such review, the provider shall, within ten days of receipt of such request, transmit the information including personal notes and observations as defined herein, to the chairman of the appropriate committee with a statement setting forth the specific reasons for which access was denied. After an in camera review of the materials provided and after providing all parties a reasonable opportunity to be heard, the committee shall promptly make a written determination whether the requested review of the information can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the subject or others which outweighs the qualified person`s right of access to the information pursuant to paragraph (d) of this subdivision or whether the requested review would have a detrimental effect as defined in subdivision two of this section, or whether all or part of the materials sought to be reviewed constitute personal notes and observations, and shall accordingly determine whether access to all or part of such materials shall be granted. In the event that the committee determines that the request for access shall be granted in whole or in part, the committee shall notify all parties and the provider shall grant access pursuant to such determination.
(f)In the event that access is denied in whole or in part because the requested review of information can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the subject or others which would outweigh the qualified person`s right of access to the information, or would have a detrimental effect as defined in subdivision two of this section, the committee shall notify the qualified person of his or her right to seek judicial review of the provider`s determination pursuant to this section: provided however, that a determination by the committee as to whether materials sought to be reviewed constitute personal notes and observations shall not be the subject of judicial review. Within thirty days of receiving notification of such decision, the qualified person may commence, upon notice, a special proceeding in supreme court for a judgment requiring the provider to make available the information for inspection or copying. The court upon such application and after an in camera review of the materials provided including the determination and record of the committee, and after providing all parties an opportunity to be heard, shall determine whether there exists a reasonable basis for the denial of access. The relief available pursuant to this section shall be limited to a judgement requiring the provider to make available to the qualified person the requested information for inspection or copying.

4.Medical record access review committees. The commissioner shall appoint medical record access review committees to hear appeals of the denial of access to patient information as provided in paragraph (e) of subdivision three of this section. Members of such committees shall be appointed by the commissioner from a list of nominees submitted by statewide associations of providers in the particular licensed profession involved; provided, however, that, with respect to patient information maintained by a psychiatrist, the list of nominees shall be composed of psychiatrists. In the case of the licensed physicians, such association shall be the medical society of the state of New York. Such medical record access review committees shall consist of no less than three nor more than five licensed professionals. The commissioner shall promulgate rules and regulations necessary to effectuate the provisions of this subdivision.

5.Annual report. The commissioner shall submit an annual report on or before December thirty-first to the governor and the legislature. Such report shall include, but not be limited to, the number of requests for committee review of providers` denial of access and the committees` determinations thereon.

6.Disclosure to third persons. Whenever a health care provider, as otherwise authorized by law, discloses patient information to a person or entity other than the subject of such information or to other qualified persons, either a copy of the subject`s written authorization shall be added to the patient information or the name and address of such third party and a notation of the purpose for the disclosure shall be indicated in the file or record of such subject`s patient information maintained by the provider provided, however, that for disclosures made to government agencies making payments on behalf of patients or to insurance companies licensed pursuant to the insurance law such a notation shall only be entered at the time the disclosure is first made.

This subdivision shall not apply to disclosure to practitioners or other personnel employed by or under contract with the facility, or to government agencies for purposes of facility inspections or professional conduct investigations. Any disclosure made pursuant to this section shall be limited to that information necessary in light of the reason for disclosure. Information so disclosed should be kept confidential by the party receiving such information and the limitations on such disclosure in this section shall apply to such party.

7.Applicability of federal law. Whenever federal law or applicable federal regulations affecting the release of patient information are a condition for the receipt of federal aid, and are inconsistent with the provisions of this section, the provisions of federal law or federal regulations shall be controlling.

8.Challenges to accuracy. A qualified person may challenge the accuracy of information maintained in the patient information and may require that a brief written statement prepared by him or her concerning the challenged information be inserted into the patient information.
This statement shall become a permanent part of the patient information and shall be released whenever the information at issue is released.
This subdivision shall apply only to factual statements and shall not include a provider`s observations, inferences or conclusions.
A facility may place reasonable restrictions on the time and frequency of any challenges to accuracy.

9.Waivers void. Any agreement by an individual to waive any right to inspect, copy or seek correction of patient information as provided for in this section shall be deemed to be void as against public policy and wholly unenforceable.
10.Nothing contained in this section shall restrict, expand or in any way limit the disclosure of any information pursuant to articles twenty-three, thirty-one and forty-five of the civil practice law and rules or section six hundred seventy-seven of the county law.
11.No proceeding shall be brought or penalty assessed, except as provided for in this section, against a health care provider, who in good faith, denies access to patient information.
12.Immunity from liability. No health care provider shall be subjected to civil liability arising solely from granting or providing access to any patient information in accordance with this section.

The Mental Hygeine (MHY) Law of New York, Title E, Section 33.16 controls access to mental health records (you may also want to see 33.13, which is on confidentiality of records). You should have access to these records. The doctor can refuse if he feels that revealing the information in the records will be detrimental to the patient or others, but there is an appeal process:§ 33.16 Access to clinical records.(a)Definitions. For the purposes of this section:
  1. "Clinical record" means any information concerning or relating to the examination or treatment of an identifiable patient or client maintained or possessed by a facility which has treated or is treating such patient or client, except data disclosed to a practitioner in confidence by other persons on the basis of an express condition that such data would never be disclosed to the patient or client or other persons, provided that such data has never been disclosed by the practitioner or a facility to any other person. If at any time such data is disclosed, it shall be considered clinical records for the purposes of this section. For purposes of this subdivision, "disclosure to any other person" shall not include disclosures made pursuant to section 33.13 of this article, to practitioners as part of a consultation or referral during the treatment of the patient or client, to the statewide planning and research cooperative system, or to the committee or a court pursuant to the provisions of this section or to an insurance carrier insuring, or an attorney consulted by, a facility.
  2. "Committee" means a clinical record access review committee appointed pursuant to this section.
  3. "Facility" means a facility as defined in section 1.03 of this chapter, a program requiring approval for operation pursuant to article thirty-two of this chapter or institutions offering training in psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and related areas chartered pursuant to section two hundred sixteen of the education law.
  4. "Mental health practitioner" or "practitioner" means a person employed by or rendering a service at a facility maintaining the clinical record licensed under article one hundred thirty-one of the education law who practices psychiatry or a person licensed under article one hundred thirty-nine, one hundred fifty-three or one hundred fifty-four of the education law or any other person not prohibited by law from providing mental health or developmental disabilities services.
  5. "Patient or client" means an individual concerning whom a clinical record is maintained or possessed by a facility as defined in paragraph three of this subdivision.
  6. "Qualified person" means any properly identified patient or client, guardian of a mentally retarded or developmentally disabled person appointed pursuant to article seventeen-A of the surrogate's court procedure act, or committee for an incompetent appointed pursuant to article seventy-eight of this chapter or a parent of an infant, or a guardian of an infant appointed pursuant to article seventeen of the surrogate's court procedure act or other legally appointed guardian of an infant who may be entitled to request access to a clinical record pursuant to paragraph three of subdivision (b) of this section, or a parent, spouse or adult child of an adult patient or client who may be entitled to request access to a clinical record pursuant to paragraph four of subdivision (b) of this section.
  7. "Treating practitioner" means the practitioner, who has or had primary responsibility for the care of the patient or client within the facility or if such practitioner is unavailable, a practitioner designated by such facility.
(b)Access by qualified persons.
  1. Subject to the provisions of subdivision (c) of this section, upon the written request of any patient or client, a facility shall provide an opportunity, within ten days, for such individual to inspect any clinical record concerning or relating to the examination or treatment of such individual in the possession of such facility.
  2. Subject to the provisions of subdivision (c) of this section, upon the written request of a committee for an incompetent appointed pursuant to article seventy-eight of this chapter or a guardian of the person of a mentally retarded or developmentally disabled person appointed pursuant to article seventeen-A of the surrogate's court procedure act, a facility shall provide an opportunity, within ten days, for the committee or such guardian to inspect any clinical record concerning the patient or client in the possession of such facility. Provided, however, in the case of any such request by such a guardian to inspect the clinical record concerning a client eighteen years of age or older, the facility shall notify such client of such request.
  3. Subject to the provisions of subdivision (c) of this section and except as otherwise provided by law, upon the written request of a parent of an infant or guardian of an infant appointed pursuant to article seventeen of the surrogate's court procedure act, or any other legally appointed guardian of an infant, a facility shall provide an opportunity, within ten days, for such parent or guardian to inspect any clinical record maintained or possessed by such facility concerning care and treatment of the infant for which the consent of a parent or guardian was obtained or has been requested; provided, however, that such parent or guardian shall not be entitled to inspect or make copies of any clinical record concerning the care and treatment of an infant where the treating practitioner determines that access to the information requested by such parent or guardian would have a detrimental effect on the practitioner's professional relationship with the infant, or on the care and treatment of the infant or on the infant's relationship with his or her parents or guardians.
  4. Subject to the provisions of subdivision (c) of this section and except as otherwise required by law, upon the written request of a parent of an adult patient or client, spouse or adult child of a patient or client, a facility shall provide an opportunity, within ten days, for such parent, spouse or adult child to inspect any clinical record maintained or possessed by such facility concerning the care and treatment of such patient or client for which the parent, spouse or adult child is authorized pursuant to law, rule or regulation to provide consent and has consented or is being requested to provide such consent; provided, however, that such parent, spouse or adult child shall not be entitled to inspect or make copies of any clinical record concerning the care and treatment of the patient or client where the treating practitioner determines that access to the information requested by such parent, spouse or adult child would have a detrimental effect on the practitioner's professional relationship with the patient or client, or on the care and treatment of the patient or client or on the relationship of the patient or client with his or her parents, spouse or adult child.Any inspection of a clinical record made pursuant to this paragraph shall be limited to that information which is relevant in light of the reason for such inspection.
  5. Subject to the provisions of this subdivision and subdivision (c) of this section, upon the written request of any qualified person, a facility shall furnish to such person, within a reasonable time, a copy of any clinical record requested which the person is authorized to inspect pursuant to this subdivision.
  6. The facility may impose a reasonable charge for all inspections and copies, not exceeding the costs incurred by such provider. However, the reasonable charge for paper copies shall not exceed seventy-five cents per page. A qualified person shall not be denied access to the clinical record solely because of inability to pay.
  7. A facility may place reasonable limitations on the time, place, and frequency of any inspection of clinical records.
  8. A treating practitioner may request the opportunity to review the patient information with the qualified person requesting such information, but such review shall not be a prerequisite for furnishing the record.
  9. A facility may make available for inspection either the original or a copy of clinical records.
(c)Limitations on access.
  1. Upon receipt of a written request by a qualified person to inspect or copy the clinical record maintained by a facility, the facility shall inform the treating practitioner of the request. The treating practitioner may review the information requested.Unless the treating practitioner determines pursuant to paragraph three of this subdivision that the requested review of the clinical record can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the patient or client or others which would outweigh the qualified person's right of access to the record, review of such record shall be permitted or copies provided.
  2. A patient or client over the age of twelve may be notified of any request by a qualified person to review his/her record and if the patient or client objects to disclosure, the facility, in consultation with the treating practitioner may deny the request.
  3. If, after consideration of all the attendant facts and circumstances, the practitioner or treating practitioner determines that the requested review of all or part of the clinical record can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the patient or client or others, or would have a detrimental effect as defined in subdivision (b) of this section, the facility may accordingly deny access to all or a part of the record and may grant access to a prepared summary of the record. In determining whether the review can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the patient or client or others which would outweigh the qualified person's right of access to the record or whether review of the record would have a detrimental effect as defined in subdivision (b) of this section, the practitioner or treating practitioner may consider, among other things, the following:(i)the need for, and the fact of, continuing care and treatment; (ii)the extent to which the knowledge of the information contained in the clinical record may be harmful to the health or safety of the patient or client or others; (iii)the extent to which the clinical record contains sensitive information disclosed in confidence to the practitioner or treating practitioner by family members, friends and other persons; (iv)the extent to which the clinical record contains sensitive information disclosed to the practitioner or the treating practitioner by the patient or client which would be injurious to the patient's or client's relationships with other persons except where the patient or client is requesting information concerning himself or herself; and (v)in the case of a minor making a request for access pursuant to paragraph one of subdivision (b), the age of the patient or client.
  4. In the event of a denial of access, the qualified person shall be informed by the facility of such denial, and of the qualified person's right to obtain, without cost, a review of the denial by the appropriate clinical record access review committee. If the qualified person requests such review, the facility shall, within ten days of receipt of such request, transmit the record to the chairman of the appropriate committee with a statement setting forth the specific reasons access was denied. After an in camera review of the materials provided and after providing all parties a reasonable opportunity to be heard, the committee shall promptly make a determination whether the requested reviews of the record can reasonably be expected to cause substantial and identifiable harm to the patient or client or others which outweighs the qualified person's right of access to the record pursuant to paragraph three of this subdivision or whether the requested review would have a detrimental effect as defined in subdivision (b) of this section, and shall accordingly determine whether access to all or part of such record shall be granted. In the event that the committee determines that the request for access shall be granted in whole or in part, the committee shall notify all parties and the facility shall grant access pursuant to such determination.
  5. In the event that access is denied in whole or in part the committee shall notify the qualified person of his or her right to seek judicial review of the facility's determination pursuant to this section.Within thirty days of receiving notification of the decision, the qualified person may commence, upon notice, a special proceeding in supreme court for a judgment requiring the provider to make available the record for inspection or copying. The court upon such application and after an in camera review of the materials provided, including the determination and record of the committee, and after providing all parties an opportunity to be heard, shall determine whether there exists a reasonable basis for the denial of access. The relief available pursuant to this section shall be limited to a judgment requiring the facility to make available to the qualified person the requested record for inspection or copying.
(d)Clinical records access review committees. The commissioner of mental health, the commissioner of mental retardation and developmental disabilities and the commissioner of alcoholism and substance abuse services shall appoint clinical record access review committees to hear appeals of the denial of access to patient or client records as provided in paragraph four of subdivision (c) of this section. Members of such committees shall be appointed by the respective commissioners. Such clinical record access review committees shall consist of no less than three nor more than five persons. The commissioners shall promulgate rules and regulations necessary to effectuate the provisions of this subdivision.(e)Annual report. The commissioner of mental health, the commissioner of mental retardation and developmental disabilities and the commissioner of alcoholism and substance abuse services shall each submit an annual report on or before December thirty-first to the governor and the legislature. Such reports shall include, but not be limited to, the number of requests for committee review of providers' denial of access and the committees' determinations thereon.(f)Applicability of federal law. Whenever federal law or applicable federal regulations restrict, or as a condition for the receipt of federal aid require, that the release of clinical records or information be more restrictive than is provided under this section, the provisions of federal law or federal regulation shall be controlling.(g)Challenges to accuracy. A qualified person may challenge the accuracy of information maintained in the clinical record and may require that a brief written statement prepared by him/her concerning the challenged information be inserted into the clinical record. This statement shall become a permanent part of the record and shall be released whenever the clinical record at issue is released. This subdivision shall apply only to factual statements and shall not include a provider's observations, inferences or conclusions. A facility may place reasonable restrictions on the time and frequency of any challenges to accuracy.(h)Waivers void. Any agreement by an individual to waive any right to inspect, copy or seek correction of the clinical record as provided for in this section shall be deemed to be void as against public policy and wholly unenforceable.(i)Disclosure. Nothing contained in this section shall restrict, expand or in any way limit the disclosure of any information pursuant to articles twenty-three, thirty-one and forty-five of the civil practice law and rules or section six hundred seventy-seven of the county law.(j)Proceedings. No proceeding shall be brought or penalty assessed, except as provided for in this section, against a facility, which in good faith, denies access to a clinical record.(k)Immunity from liability. No facility, practitioner, treating practitioner, mental health practitioner or clinical records access review committee member shall be subjected to civil liability arising solely from granting or providing access to any clinical record in accordance with this section.

North Carolina

§ 50-13.2. Who is entitled to custody; terms of custody; visitation rights of grandparents; taking child out of State.
(b) ....Absent an order of the court to the contrary, each parent shall have equal access to the records of the minor child involving the health, education, and welfare of the child.

Cumberland County Schools Policy on access to school records.

The significant item here is that, if your child is 18 or older, you can only access the records if you claim the child on your federal tax return.

North Dakota

14-09-28. Parental custody and visitation rights and duties. (page 99)
  1. Each parent of a child has the following custody and visitation rights and duties:
    a. Right to access and obtain copies of the child's educational, medical, dental, religious, insurance, and other records or information.
    b. Right to attend educational conferences concerning the child. This right does not require any school to hold a separate conference with each parent.
    c. Right to reasonable access to the child by written, telephonic, and electronic means.
    d. Duty to inform the other parent as soon as reasonably possible of a serious accident or serious illness for which the child receives health care treatment. The parent shall provide to the other parent a description of the serious accident or serious illness, the time of the serious accident or serious illness, and the name and location of the treating health care provider.
    e. Duty to immediately inform the other parent of a change in residential telephone number and address.
    f. Duty to keep the other parent informed of the name and address of the school the child attends.
  2. The court shall include in an order establishing or modifying visitation the rights and duties listed in this section; however, the court may restrict or exclude any right or duty listed in this section if the order states the reason in support of the restriction or exclusion. The court shall consider any domestic violence protection orders relating to the parties when determining whether to restrict or exclude any right or duty listed in this section.

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